Romulus, the city’s first king, is said to have founded the city in 753 B.C.E., according to legend. Rome became a republic in 509 BCE, governed by the Senate (which consisted of wealthy landowners and elders) and the Roman people. During the 450 years of the republic, Rome conquered the remainder of Italy and then expanded into France, Spain, Turkey, North Africa, and Greece, establishing a powerful foothold in the Mediterranean.
Rome became heavily affected by, or “Hellenized,” Greek culture, and the city was suffocating in Greek architecture, literature, sculptures, wall paintings, mosaics, ceramics, and glass, among other things. But, along with Greek culture, came Greek gold, and generals and senators struggled over control of this newfound prosperity throughout the ancient world. The Roman Republic was destroyed by civil conflict and the Roman Empire was established.
Successive emperors, like as Tiberius and Claudius, pushed the boundaries of Rome’s empire even beyond. By the time of the Roman emperor Trajan, in the late first century C.E., the Roman empire had grown to cover the entire Mediterranean basin, Britain, much of northern and central Europe, and the Near East, with a population of around fifty million people.
Tip 1: Roman Forum
The Roman Forum, also known as the Forum Romanum in Latin, was a site located in the heart of the ancient city of Rome that served as a focal point for religious, political, and social activities of great importance. Historians believe the first public gatherings in the open-air Forum took place around 500 B.C., around the time of the founding of the Roman Republic. Numerous of the ancient city’s most impressive temples and monuments were located in this rectangular-shaped area on low-lying land between Palatine Hill and Capitoline Hill, which was formed by the convergence of two hills: Palatine and Capitoline. With more than 4.5 million visitors per year, the Roman Forum is one of the most visited tourist destinations in the world today.
The Forum was regarded as the beating heart of the city of Rome. Even though there were numerous other forums in ancient Rome, the Roman Forum was by far the most important.
It was a multi-purpose facility that could accommodate a variety of different functions.
For example, elections, Public speeches, Criminal trials, Gladiator fights (before the Colosseum was built), Business deals, Public meetings or Religious ceremonies.
Tip 2: Trevi Fountain
It is arguably the most well-known of Rome’s numerous fountains, the Trevi Fountain (Fontana di Trevi), which is considered a late Baroque masterpiece and is known as “the Fountain of the Four Rivers.” It was built in 1762 and was designed by Nicola Salvi and completed by Giuseppe Pannini. According to legend, those who toss coins into the waters of the fountain will come back to Rome.
The fountain is located in the Trevi district of Rome, directly across from the Palazzo Poli. There had previously been a fountain on the site, but it had been demolished by the 17th century, and a competition for a new fountain was won by architect Nicola Salvi in 1732. His creation was a sight to behold in terms of scenery. It was Pietro da Cortona who came up with the concept of merging the palace front and fountain, but it was Giuseppe Salvi who brought all of the pomp and circumstance to the fountain’s central triumphal arch with its mythical and allegorical statues, natural rock formations, and rushing water. The construction of the Trevi Fountain took around 30 years, and following Salvi’s death in 1751, Giuseppe Pannini, who significantly modified the original design, oversaw the fountain’s completion in 1762.
The Trevi Fountain is, in our opinion, the most magnificent fountain on the planet. At the fountain you are never really alone, whether it is illuminated by natural light or brightly lit at night.
One thing that might damper a little bit the atmosphere is the abundance of persons attempting to sell roses in a forceful manner, but merely ignoring them is sufficient to allow one to continue to appreciate such a lovely environment.
Tip 3: Colosseum
The Colosseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, was a massive Amphitheatre erected in Rome during the reign of the Flavian emperors. Construction of the Colosseum began somewhere between 70 and 72 CE, under the reign of Vespasian. It was completed by the year 72 CE. It is located on the grounds of what was once known as Nero’s Golden House, just east of the Palatine Hill. The artificial lake that had served as the focal point of the palace complex was drained, and the Colosseum was built on the site, a choice that was as much symbolic as it was practical in its implications.
In order to replace the despotic emperor’s private lake with a public Amphitheatre, Vespasian, who came from modest beginnings, elected to build a public Amphitheatre that could accommodate tens of thousands of people.
When the Colosseum was utilized as a cathedral, it was transformed into a fortification by two famous Roman families, the Frangipane and the Annibaldi, during the middle Ages. The Colosseum has been damaged by lightning and earthquakes, as well as vandalism and pollution, which have caused it to crumble even further. For more than 1,000 years, the site was considered as nothing more than a quarry, and as a result, all of the marble benches and ornamental elements were destroyed. Efforts to preserve the Colosseum were launched in earnest in the nineteenth century, with substantial contributions from Pope Pius VIII, and a restoration project was launched in the 1990s. It has long been a popular tourist destination in Rome, attracting almost seven million tourists every year to its historic center. Exhibitions connected to the culture of ancient Rome are staged on a regular basis and change with the seasons.
Tip 4: St. Peter’s Basilica
As you stand at the base of the ancient Egyptian Obelisk ‘The Witness’ in St. Peter’s Square, an overwhelming sense of awe begins to wash over you. Despite the fact that you are craning your neck to admire the imposing facade and dome of St. Peter’s Basilica, the vast colonnade seems to embrace you from both sides. Stunning, mind-blowing, and completely speechless, a visit to the St. Peter’s Basilica will leave you feeling a range of emotions.
St. Peter’s Basilica, the largest church in the world, is more than just the most important structure in all of Christendom; it is also the most important building in the world. It is a jewel within Vatican City, and it has served as a platform from which Popes have spread the word of God around the world. The Basilica is not just a major pilgrimage destination, drawing millions of visitors each year, but it is also a great cultural, historical, and architectural icon.
The classic Renaissance structure contains treasures from millennia past, such as paintings, sculptures, artefacts, and the art that has been decorated on the walls of the building. Visiting St. Peter’s Basilica is a delight for the senses as well as the spirit!
Tip 5: Vatican Museums
The Vatican Museums and Galleries, which have held the art collections of the popes since the beginning of the 15th century and are located in the papal palaces and other structures in the Vatican, are a must-see for anybody visiting Rome.
Every year, millions of people line up along the Vatican’s walls to see this collection of art, history, and archaeology that has few equals anywhere in the world, and which is framed by Renaissance palaces that are connected to Saint Peter’s Basilica. The Vatican is one of the world’s most visited attraction, with millions of visitors each year. Although everyone wants to see the Sistine Chapel and the Raphael Rooms, getting there requires passing through a bewildering array of halls, collections, galleries, and courtyards in order to get there. A procession of artwork that is both beautiful and moving.
The Vatican Museums contain clear signage in a variety of languages; once inside, you will have no trouble getting oriented and finding your way to the exhibits that interest you the most. The Vatican Museums are open daily from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
While the Vatican Museums are mostly housed within the Vatican Palaces, which have undergone several expansions and decorations from the 1300s to the 1800s, the majority of these additions and embellishments were completed by Bramante in the early 1500s.